Archive for category Manual
Tomatoes are one of my favourite foods so I grow as many as I can fit in my garden and choose varieties for their flavour, use and season and I make sure of a good crop by really taking care of them. As with most plants if you give them a good start and the best growing conditions you will be rewarded with better crops and stronger plants that need less care in the long run.
Choosing Tomato varieties
My favourite eating tomato is still Noir de Crimee, a black Russian heirloom; odd shape, odd colour but fantastic taste. Cherry tomatoes are a must for me as they are great to graze on while pottering around the garden. Next I make sure I have plenty of tomatoes for preserving, some varieties being better than others, the best I’ve tried so far are San Marzano and Roma for paste and sauces see the page on best preserving tomatoes. The other thing to consider is the length of the season. Some tomatoes bear fruit more quickly than others and are normally described by the number of days from planting out to first fruit ripening i.e. Early 55-70 days, Mid-Season 70-85 days and Late beyond 85 days. Next is variety of flavour and colour which makes for wonderful mixed tomato salads so it is nice to grow a few mild white tomatoes, acidic green ones and puunchy orange ones.
The first thing about tomatoes is that they need plenty of nutrients to produce all those lovely fruits, but the nutrients need to be added as they grow, if you put too much in at the beginning they are more likely to have too much leaf growth at the expense of fruit.
Tomatoes need a constant medium level of moisture. Too dry, too wet or too much fluctuation often causes blossom end rot resulting in unusable tom
atoes. Prepare the soil where the tomatoes are to be grown either by preparing planting holes, troughs or the entire bed. I prefer to prepare troughs as this helps to direct the most nutrients and moisture to the roots and it makes it easier to water when needed. Dig a long ditch 2 spades deep and 1 spade wide. Put a layer of chopped comfrey leaves on the bottom and half fill with a mixture of well rotten compost and manure 9 parts compost to one part manure and water heavily to fill the trough.
Plant the tomatoes in the bottom of the trough, as deep as you can, right up to the first set of true leaves, remove the remaining baby leaves. Roots will grow from th
e stalks giving the plant more stability and ability to draw more moisture and nutrients from the soil cover with dry soil but leave sides to the trough. This will help protect the young plants from wind and help direct water to the plants.
Spacing and Staking
Tomatoes need a fare bit of space as they don’t like to be crowded. It depends on how you plan to grow the tomatoes as to what distance apart they should by anything from 40-75cm apart works. I normally set out at around 50cm apart and grow them as cordons, that is straight up a pole with one main stem or sometimes two depending on how vigorous the variety. Cordon tomatoes need to be staked, I use 2 meter metal, chestnut, or cane poles with a cross brace on windy sites. Tie in the plants as they grow so that the tops are firmly but gently attached to the poles.
Once the tomatoes are in place add a top dressing of organic soil enhancer such as seaweed meal or well rotted manure. The dressing will gradually be brought down into the soil by water and the soluble nutrients can then be drawn up by the plant as it grows.
Applying a mulch, a top cover, over the ground around the tomatoes will help protect the soil and plants and conserve the moisture level in the soil. For more details on mulching read Using Mulches
Intermediate tomatoes have a habit of growing into bushes which produce a lot of leaf and plant growth but less fruit. In order to concentrate the plants energy on the fruit it helps to pinch out the side shoots. That is the little sprouts that form between the main stems and a leaf branch. Pinch these out with your fingers when they are less than 12cm. If you have missed a few and they have got bigger cut them off with clippers or a knife so as not to tear the plant.
Tomatoes benefit from a liquid feed, applied every 2 weeks, once the fruit start to form. You can buy ready made preparations but why not make you own. For more details on liquid feeds read Making Organic Liquid Fertilisers
Russian Comfrey is one of the most versatile plants for the organic kitchen gardener as it is a fantastic natural source of potash-rich organic material and liquid feed. It’s many uses include; compost activator, liquid feed, potting mix, soil enhancer, mulch and bee attractant.
The real value of comfrey lies in its composition. The roots bring up potassium, phosphate and other minerals from deep in the ground to the leaves which are also high in nitrogen. Comfrey has 2-3 times more potassium than animal manure, which makes it especially good for the production of flowers, fruits and seeds.
Beware Russian Comfrey (Symphytum x uplandicum) is quite a different plant from Wild Comfrey. (Symphytum asperum). Russian Comfrey is a hybrid and is sterile so does not freely seed. Wild Comfrey seeds madly and can be a real nuisance, we had some growing in our garden in England and I could not get rid of it.
If you haven’t got a garden, or the time to wait for salad crops to mature in the ground, or despite your best efforts your lettuces have succumbed to a scorching summer, hungry wildlife or your summer holiday away; sprouting seeds will fill the gap.
Sprouted seeds are packed full of energy, are highly nutritious and are very easy to grow in your own kitchen, you don’t even need a garden. They take only a few days and no special equipment to grow yet provide delicious, almost instant satisfaction, and dinner on the plate.
Seeds are just plants waiting to happen, dry they are in a dormant state and only need to be filled with water to become a living entity. Seeds sprout fastest in a warm light airy place, out of direct sunlight, with an ambient temperature of 18-22 Celsius, which is pretty much the condition of most kitchens. All you need is a large glass jar with a screw top lid and water. You can use a purpose made sprouter, there are many inexpensive types available, or you can make your own by piercing the lid of a jam jar to make drainage holes or securing a square of muslin over the top of the jar with an elastic band.
Firstly soak the seeds in a large jar filled with cool water, as directed for each seed type. Empty out the water and flush with more fresh water to rinse then drain thoroughly. Rinse and drain the jar twice a day, until the seeds have sprouted and are ready to eat.You can decide for yourself at what stage you like them best, as soon as the seed has fattened up from its first soaking it can be eaten or it can be left to grow on until it has full size sprouts.
When the sprouted seeds are at their peak rinse, drain and empty into a paper lined plastic box or glass jar, seal and store in the lower part of a fridge. The temperature in the fridge will halt growth and the sprouts can be stored for several days in prime condition before being eaten.
What to sprout
Some of my favourite sprouted seeds are also the most commonly available to buy.
Alfalfa (Luzerne in French) Soak seeds for 4 hours. Alfalfa will be ready to eat in 3-7 days
Crisp sweet flavour like fresh peas, delicious raw in salads or sandwich fillings. Rich in amino acids which are very important for the metabolism and helps lower cholesterol. Rich in phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, and vitamins A, B1, C, D, E, K.
Mung Bean (Haricot mungo in French) Soak seeds for 12 hours will germinate ready to eat in 5-8 days. Delicious raw in rice noodle and oriental style soups & salads, stir fried or used as stuffing for spring rolls. These are the ‘beansprouts’ most commonly found in oriental shops and restaurants. Commercially they are hulled and grown in darkness and under weight pressure to achieve the dense white crisp sprouts we are familiar with.
Chick Peas (Pois chiches in French) Soak 4 tbsp peas for 8-12 hours ready to eat in 3-6 days
Lentils (Lentilles in French) Soak seeds for 8 hours will germinate ready to eat in 5-8 days
You can find seeds specifically for sprouting, from health food shops and some seed companies. You can also experiment with all manner of vegetable and herb seeds that can be sprouted and are delicious; including pumpkins, peas, sunflowers, broccoli, leeks, onions, and chives. For more information and inspiration on what and how to sprout visit Sprout People or Primal Seeds.
Originally Posted on Mas du Diable 16/8/2007:
My dream would be to have an orange, lemon and lime grove stretching as far as the eye could see with a few Kaffir lime and other strange citrus dotted around. A dream inspired by a visit to Seville and walking through a magnificent orangery in nearby Cordoba, the dimension of the trees just tall enough to walk under, the colours of the fruit hanging against the shiny dark green leaves and the perfumes from the leaves, fruit and flowers was pure heaven and inspired me to grow citrus.
Further North, however the weather can be too cold and wet in winter to support citrus trees in the ground but just because we haven’t got an ideal climate, soil or conditions it is not going to stop me trying to grow citrus. I have found that we are able to grow some citrus fruit in pots and get a fairly decent harvest (for the size of the trees), these pots can be brought inside in winter bringing with them the scents and smells of an exotic orangery.
A few years ago my mum bought us our first Lemon tree (Citrus Limon) a small 2-3 year old dwarf variety called La Valette which produces pale yellow round aromatic fruit with a thin smooth skin. It bore 3 perfect fruit in its first year and so far fruits every year and sometimes twice, then my nieces, Ruby and Nelly, bought me a Kaffir Lime tree (Citrus Hystrix) for my birthday, a healthy looking brute which produces the wonderfully pungent leaves essential to Thai cooking as well as green gnarly fruit. Next i bought a lemon tree in Italy which is a standard form and produces long fruit with a thick skin (pictured above).
We are just at the beginning with our citrus adventure, not having grown any before, but our limited success so far is encouraging.
Temperature Most citrus need heat which is fine in the summer but should not be subjected to temperatures below 0, although some are said to survive up to -5, (ours have survived -7 with protection outside) to be on the safe side make sure to protect against frost and bring them indoors if it’s not possible to put them in a light frost-free place outside.
Soil a slightly acidic soil that is light, well aerated, well-drained and rich.
Feed with a diluted seaweed folia spray, a special ‘agrumes’ fertiliser or the traditional feed of diluted urine during the growing season. Mulch with well-rotted compost in autumn.
Water Citrus need a good supply of water but should never be left soggy or water-logged. A good soaking every few days in the dry summer, once a week (or when soil has completely dried out) in spring and autumn and rarely in winter, only when the soil is really dried out. Citrus will benefit from a spray of water on the leaves at night in high summer.
Space Re-pot every 2-3 years in Spring.
By growing our citrus trees in pots we can give nature a helping hand and move the small trees around to find the best micro climate for our weather conditions during the year. By putting them beside a south-facing wall in spring and autumn they are outdoors to benefit from the sun and heat on warm days but get the radiated heat from the wall to protect them from temperature dips. In winter we put them in an open cave which gets full low winter sun during the day and keeps some heat during the night to keep frost at bay. In summer they go out into the garden to benefit from full sun, occasionally pulling them into the shade if it gets too hot for a rest. By growing in pots we can also ensure that they have soil specifically tailored to them and a watering regime to suit.
Lemons Lisbon and Eureka and Villafranca are the most hardy and commonly grown. Mayer is recommended for conservatory growing and Citron de Nice is both hardy and resistant to cold. La Valette suitable for pots and fruits all year round, unripe lemons can be used as limes.
One of the most important things I’ve learned is how useful it is and how much more you learn by keeping good records of what you grow and how you grow it. Particularly if you want to save the seeds from your most beloved varieties.
I originally started this weblog as a way to try and organise my records of the garden and food growing activities and to share information, tips, ideas and techniques with other gardeners but by starting this blog the curious thing is that I was compelled to start a paper record too. I seem to have one foot in the ‘only paper will do’ camp and the other on the information super highway. Perhaps I am a Luddite at heart or perhaps I just don’t trust that wherever this website resides will always be there.
The irony is that starting a blog made me start a proper garden notebook going back to scratch. I took it seriously, buying a moleskine notebook no-less. It is a little bible of a book in which I have logged the sowing, transplanting and harvest dates for every thing I’ve grown since 2004 in chronological order. I started at the back of the book working from the first sowing here at Mas du Diable in March 2004 and worked forward in time logging each month until I reached the date I started the book, sometime in 2006. It took ages going through old scraps of paper and notebooks (at least 10) to piece together the first years but it was worth it because the more years you build up the more useful the information becomes. I have carried on logging in the same way and noting key things about the garden and what is happening in it as I work.
Now the beauty of this little book is that I can, at the flick of a couple of pages, wherever I am, see exactly what I sowed on this day 3 years ago for example, or last year or look at what I sowed next month last year, what I was harvesting in the garden or when I pruned the fruit trees. At the front of the book I have a page or two for each vegetable type I grow, in alphabetical order, so that I can easily find the page to make notes about its cultivation; spacing, timing, feeds, growing pains, planting tricks, anything worth noting. In the middle is a page for each month and what should be sown in that month. All really simple but effective. I am fast approaching the point where both ends meet and the thought of having to start a new book is really what triggered this post, should I continue to keep a paper record as well as an online one?
Sometimes I do wonder why I spend so much time posting stuff on this blog when I have my trusty garden notebook at hand. Well a picture tells a thousand words as they say and I could never describe a new variety as well as a picture could. I love capturing the beauty of the vegetables I grow and the seasons as they change. But more importantly I want to be part of a community of gardeners growing food and posting about it on the internet. I learn loads from other garden bloggers and I hope they learn something from me.
So I think I’ll keep scribbling in my little Luddite bible and on this blog because each one helps the other and you never know which one will be there tomorrow.
I thought I’d share my method of leek planting as I do find it fascinating. It is the classic technique that many of the old timers advocate but more modern gardeners seem to shun. I personally think it works a treat and is particularly good for dry conditions.
When I was a kid my dad used to grow whopping leeks for the show bench. As one of those mad exhibition vegetable growers, his process for growing leeks was finely tuned, if not obsessive. His leeks were planted on long raised beds stacked with manure and earthed up to blanch the stems. I can remember him out in the garden with a tape measuring the girth of his leeks. I just grow leeks for eating, so no fancy treatment here. Apart from planting out and watering no further attention is required until harvest.
The best time to plant winter leeks in my garden is late summer, depending on the weather. If it is too hot and dry I’ll leave it until later, even as late as the end of October. Leeks are best started in a seed bed and planted out when about the thicknesss shown below. In France it is common place for gardeners to buy baby leeks at this stage rather than go to the trouble of raising the seedlings themselves.
Carefully dig up the young leeks and put straight into a bucket of water, keep them like this until you are ready ready to pant, which you need to do within a day or two. Take the seedling leeks and cut the roots back to 3 or 4cm, then I cut the tops off just above the smallest inside leaf. It may seem a bit harsh on the plant but it really does work for seedling alliums. The reason for doing this is to reduce any damaged or unnecessary plant material so that the roots are not supporting what they don’t need. Reducing the roots is optional but I find that it does help the leeks to re-establish and it cuts back roots which may have been damaged when the seedlings were pulled up. It also makes the seedlings more manageable, getting huge long roots into the planting hole is difficult, roots can get congested or damaged. This method allows the roots room to start again and water to be taken up more readily on planting. It is an old technique used in the UK and more commonly in France when planting anything out in summer, even lettuces get this treatment, which I do find a bit barbaric and my observation is that they never quite recover from it. Lettuces are much better plug sown and planted out without too much disturbance. Anyway I digress. Leeks do seem to like this treatment so I carry on doing it.
- Clear any weeds from the planting area. In this case I am using land that had corn and pumpkins on previously so it was heavily manured earlier in the year.
- Hoe the top 6-10cm of soil to loosen and work in a little bonemeal and woodashes or not previously manured.
- Mark a line for the row of leeks and with a knife or trowel dig a planting hole about 10cm deep, at intervals of 20 to 30cm. Spacing will depend on the variety or how big you want the leeks to grow.
- Drop each baby leek into a hole and water well. In dry weather water the holes before putting the leeks in, as well as after.
Note There is no need to push the soil back in around the leek. The roots are safely at the bottom of the hole and the hole has been filled with water. Gradually the hole will fill with soil and or the leek expand to fill the hole. Either way you get a nice blanched stem and a leek with plenty of water directed to the roots.
Water well every few days making sure each hole gets filled for the first couple of weeks until the roots get a chance to establish then water as normal once a week or so.
Nothing goes to waste in an organic garden. In my garden the soil, which is thin over rock, is full of stones and as I work our patch of land I take out the stones from soil where I am preparing seeds beds for onions, brassicas and lettuces or to sow crops that don’t like stony ground. Buckets of stones come out of the ground every season and what better use to put them than to make paths. They suppress weeds and make walking around a lot easier.
I use the larger flatter stones to place around capsicums, when planting out, to help retain the sun’s heat that will radiate back at night and help plants get a good start.
As spring approaches it is time to clear the old crops and make way for the new, sowing starts undercover, in my case in the polytunnel, a 50ft double-height plastic tunnel built into a drystone wall on a south facing terrace below the potager.
The plant debris and weeds are first cleared and the earth lightly worked to lighten the top soil, incorporating seaweed manure and bonemeal. For areas that are not to be planted now I cover the soil with leaves, grass cuttings and best of all chopped nettles. This protects the soil and keeps it in great condition ready for sowing later.
The first of the heat loving summer crops are planted directly in the tunnel in mid-March. For the beans I prepare long bean trenches filled with rotted garden compost. Tradition in these parts is to sow the first Haricot of the year on St. Josephs day undercover. This year I sowed a dwarf French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Tendergreen from Thomas Etty and behind that the exotic climbing Long Bean (Vigna unguiculata sesquipedalis) also known as snake bean, yard long or asparagus bean a wonderful bean that grows to 60cm or more in length. I’ve grown it every year since I got the tunnel and maintain the seeds. Also sown direct into the tunnel in mid march are the cucurbits; courgettes, cucumbers and other gourds. I am careful to make sure only one variety from each sub family of the cucrbits and legumes are sown in the tunnel so that I will be able to collect seed without danger of crossing.
So this year in the tunnel I sowed Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Burpless Tasty Green, an unusual Hairy Cucumber (Cucucmis Melo) Bari distinct from a regular cucumber in that it is botanically a melon. Achoca (Cyclanthera pedata) Fat Baby this is a small spiny cucumber like gourd that grows to form a hollow shell which is delicious stuffed. A courgette, (cucurbita pepo) Ronde de Nice a lovely round courgette with dense flesh and a gourd. Later in the year, when it is warm enough, the tomatoes, peppers, chillis and peanuts will be planted out that i’ve grown from seed in the house. Coriander gets sown all year round so another few short rows went in to keep us in supply.
Work in the tunnel this spring was made much easier with the help of Laura Beyney, who is here for a week helping out in the garden and learning about edible veg, plus the odd spot of fishing in the Ardeche.
Pumpkins are members of the Cucurbitaceae family which also includes: Cucumbers, Gourds, Squash, Melons and Courgettes & marrows. These half-hardy annuals make good potager plants because not only are they a great food source over the winter months but the leaves and flowers are attractive as well as the fruits. Most cucurbits will either trail over the ground or climb over supports. Supported they take up less space and the quality of the fruit is better, they can also provide shade for more delicate leafy plants during the summer months. Plant cucurbits to climb over walkways, pergolas, trellises, posts, bean poles and fences.
If you want a bumper crop, pumpkins need space. For our needs we don’t need that many so I prefer to stuff them in wherever I can; on the edges of beds to run under large brassicas or corn or to grow along perimeter fencing or over trellicing. As a general guide at a minimum plant bush varieties about 75cm (2ft) apart and trailing varieties 3-4ft apart or give them more space and plant bush varieties 1.5m (3-5ft) apart and trailing varieties 2-2.5m (6-8ft) apart. Allow plenty of room for the plants to spread or climb.
Site & Soil
Pumpkins are fairly greedy and thirsty plants requiring well drained, moist, rich soil in full sun. Cucurbits require a growing season of 3-4 months with a mean monthly temp of 18-27c. Minimum soil temp should be 13c. Avoid cold sites and exposed positions. To prepare a cucurbit bed: Dig out planting holes at your chosen spacing at least 30cm (1ft) deep and 45cm-60cm. Work-in a bucket-full of compost/manure. Return topsoil leaving a shallow depression in the top. Form a ridge 5cm (2in) high surrounding each planting hole to help retain moisture.
Most cucurbits will not transplant very well so in warm conditions it is best to sow direct. However if you want to get an early start or the beds are not free yet you can sow in pots undercover and plant out to minimise root disturbance.
- Sow undercover 3-4 weeks before the last frost is expected, (at the same time the planting holes are being prepared outside). Sow seeds, on their side, in a good free draining seed compost in 7.5cm biodegradable or plastic pots, 2 seeds per pot . Apply a layer of compost or vermiculite, 1cm (½in.) deep. Place in a propagator or polythene bag until the seeds germinate. Thin out the weeker seedling. When the remaining seedling has 3-6 true leaves and the roots have filled the pot (usually after 2-3 weeks). Harden off (1-2 weeks in a cold frame or in a sheltered spot) and plant-out once all danger of frost has past, to the level of the soil in the pot. The neck of the plant can be vulnerable to rot so should not be buried.
- Sow in plugs – curcubits grow well in the little pucks availble from gardening shops. Hydrate the pucks and sow one seed in the centre of each, press the sides to cover and keep moist at all times. When the roots appear at the edges of the puck plant out or on into a pot and treat as above.
- Sow direct when the soil has warmed up and all danger of frost has past, in our area that is early May. Sow 2 seeds (1in deep) into each of your prepared planting holes. Cover with a mini cloche (a cut down water bottle) if necessary for protection. When the plants emerge thin to the strongest.
Germination at 20-30C usually takes 5-10days. Seeds can be soaked over night to aid germination or chitted and sown when sprouted. Seeds should be sown on their sides not flat.
Pollination Male and female flowers are usually born separately and are insect pollinated. The female flower can be distinguished by the tiny bump behind the petals which develops into the fruit after fertilisation. Hand pollination may be necessary if fruits fail to set (best done in the morning).
Planting by the moon
Sowing at the optimum point of the lunar calendar really does seem to make a difference to Cucurbits. In our small scale trials cucurbits have germinated significantly better when sown 1 day before a full moon.
Water-in thoroughly after planting out. Water regularly and liquid feed (seaweed) every 14 days once fruit start to develop. Mark the position of the plant, with a tall stick, as it can be difficult to see where the root of the plant is when in full growth. Train Tie into supports if growing up and If growing on the ground train the leading shoot to grow in a circle, it looks great saves space and can increase plants food supply. Pin down the stems / or bury at intervals the cucurbit should develop roots on the stem thereby increasing food intake. Prune Fruits develop on laterals as well as the main stem so if the plants become too rampant nip out the main growing point and cut back laterals to within a couple of inches of the nearest developing fruit. Thin small fruit and use them in the kitchen to encourage larger fruit later. MULCH Make sure supports are strong enough to take the weight of the plant and be prepared to individually support the larger fruit if necessary.
Companion: Cucurbits tend to grow well with; beans, peas, sweetcorn, capsicums, nasturtium but mostly do NOT grow well with potatoes. Plant flowers around Cucurbit beds to encourage pollinating insects.
Harvesting and Storage
Because Pumpkins store so well they are an excellent source of food over the winter months. On average they will keep for 6months but some store for 12 months or more. Store in well ventilated conditions at temperatures between 7 and 16c. At higher temperatures they will dry out. Pumpkins can be used immature cutting early will result in a heavier crop for winter but when harvesting for winter storage they must be harvested mature.
Signs of maturity are:
- Skin colour changing from light to dark some green types may also loose their gloss.
- Stalks become corky and dry (about 50% brown is a good sign of maturity.
- Skin cannot be pierced with a thumb nail.
- Flesh is orange rather than yellow and the seeds are hard.
- Cracks appear on stems and skins
Leave on the plant as long as possible but bring in before 1st frost. Cut with 3-5cm (1-2in) of stalk. Cure in a sunny sheltered position (27-32c) (e.g. against a sunny wall) for 4 -10days to allow stalk to seal and skin to harden. Protect from night frost.
Nutrition and Culinary
Pumpkins have a higher nutritional value than courgettes and marrows (summer squash) and the Cucurbita moschata have a particularly high Vitamin C content 30% more than maxima and 80% more than pepo. Pumpkins are pretty versatile they can be used in both savory and sweet dishes. As a vegetable they can be pureed, cut into chunks and stir fried, deep fried, boiled or stewed. They can be added to soups and casseroles or cooked with mustard greens. They can be made into excellent sweet pickles, the ripe seeds can be roasted as a snack or added to salads and the flowers are a delicacy. Pumpkin seeds are a good source of essential fatty acids, potassium, and magnesium.
There are so many varieties of pumpkin it is impossible to grow all of them in one life time, but here are some of my favourites so far. I tend to prefer the dryer nuttier types of pumpkin.
reliable large cropper, creamy ochre smooth skin with a pear shape, flesh is golden-orange with a lovely hazelnut flavour. Fruit are high in Vitamin C. Great roasted, pureed or in stews, curries etc. Keeps 12months. Seed source: from organic seeds given to me by another organic grower.
Green Hokkaido (maxima)- pictured above
fattish round pumpkin with slight ribbing, dark green skin with a dense, nutty, dry, yellow to orange flesh. Each plant produces 1-3 fruit around 13-25cm in diameter with an average weight of 1-2.2kg. Matures in 98 days from direct sowing. Keeps well, 9-12months. Source Ferme St. Marthe
Marina di Chioggia (maxima) – pictured aboveItalian Heirloom – magnificent to look at, dark green knobbly skin with deep yellow orange flesh, growing up to. 5kg. lovely baked. Stores well 9-12months and flavour often improves with age. Seed source: Seeds of Italy, Seeds of Kokopelli, Ferme St. Marthe
Potimarron Red Kuri (maxima) A Japanese ‘Orange Hokkaido’ type pumpkin also known as Uchiki Kury. Brick-red tear drop shaped fruits weigh in at 1.5-2.5 kg and an average diameter of 15cm. They have a wonderful dense dry flesh and a deep chestnut flavour. Stores 4-6 months. pictured above
Potimarron (maxima) originally brought from Japan by Macrobiotic master Oshawa. Now a French classic. Chestnut flavoured dense flesh 2-4kg Keeps fairly well, 4-8 months. Matures in 90days from direct sowing. Seed source: Seeds of Kokopelli, Ferme St. Marthe
Blue Hubbard (maxima) Huge, teardrop-shaped fruit weigh 15-40 lbs and have sweet, fine-grained, golden flesh. Great for baking, pies, and soup. The hard, blue-gray shell helps these keep for long periods in storage. Gregory Seed Company introduced this fine New England variety in 1909, and Mr. Gregory considered it his best introduction. pictured right
Musquee de Provence (moschata) French southern heirloom variety smooth skin, green ripening to ochre with deep ribs and sweet, aromatic firm orange flesh, They look a bit like a Cinderella pumpkin. Vines are vigorous and can grow up to 6m bearing 2-5 9kg fruit. Matures in 110days from direct sowing. Keeps well.
Winter Lettuces are varieties of lettuces that can be sown late in the season, will tolerate cold and low light levels and still provide leaf pickings for the salad bowl right through winter and into spring. Some of my favourite lettuces are these hardy types because they have robust flavours, crisp leaves and good textures.
Lettuces mature in around 50-60 days when grown at optimum temperatures but the lettuce will slow down in cold weather, a trait which gardeners can use to their advantage. In cold weather a lettuce can stand fresh and ready to be picked for 2 or more months, it won’t go to seed and if you can protect the crop from very cold or wet weather and if you can get the timing right it will stand in perfect condition right through winter. So plan your winter crop of lettuce so that it is almost ready to pick by the first frosts of winter. At that stage it is large enough to stand light frost outdoors and undercover survive happily in surounding tempertures of -10c.
My pick of varieties
To get a good lettuce crop throughout winter it is best to select winter lettuce varieties, those that have proven themselves or been selected for thier growth habit and hardiness. My favourites include:
Winter Density (Cos) a lovely solid crisp green heading cos, standing tall and fairly tightly wrapped; excellent undercover in winter and outdoors in late winter/early spring. Rouge Grenobloise (Batavian) Large crispheads with red-tinted ruffled leaves, good flavour, cold hardy and will grow happily in shade; an excellent winter lettuce outdoors. Ubriacona (Loose Leaf Batavian) This Italian Heirloom has beautiful green hearts with red outer edged leaves, performs well and has great taste and texture. Provides cutting lettuce all year and will overwinter in my garden. Verde D’Inverno (Cos) Tall mid green heads crisp leaves with good taste. Stands well through winter. Rougette de Montpelier, (Butterhead) tight heading lettuce with crisp white stalks and soft green leaves tinged red at the edges, this variety can be grown undercover or outdoors but I find the flavour is better and the heads are crisper if grown outdoors. Valdor (Butterhead) I grew this lettuce for the first time 2 years ago so I am still testing it out and cannot thoroughly recommend it yet. It grew well in the polytunnel producing voluminous green heads with large fleshy leaves. But it suffered from mildew undercover, as spring approached and temperatures soured undercover, it may do better outdoors so I’ll give it another try this winter.
Images Rougette de Montpelier, Winter Density, Ubriacona, Valdor
Read more about growing lettuces
Cultivating Lettuces in Summer
By late summer mint is usually looking decidedly unappetising, long straggly flower stems and burnt out leaves. But mint, given a good haircut, will come back with flush of tasty fresh leaves.
It is a very simple job that does not need any finesse. Use a pair of secateurs or even shears and cut the long stems back to a few buds above ground level or to a height you prefer.